Global Power Transition and the Future of the European Union

Birol A. Yeşilada, Jacek Kugler, Gaspare Genna, Osman Göktuğ Tanrıkulu
The book examines factors behind the decline of the EU relative to the rise of China and other powers in the global hierarchy and what policy options are available for EU leaders to implement in order to compete as a global actor. It analyses determinants of regional integration and key policy challenges the EU faces in its quest for an "ever deeper union," and identifies significant factors (i.e., power relations, economic relations, emergent social values across the EU) that can explain the likelihood of further integration or conflict between EU member states.
This text will be essential reading for scholars, students, and practitioners interested in European Union politics international relations, security studies, and comparative politics.
 
External link: https://www.routledge.com/Global-Power-Transition-and-the-Future-of-the-European-Union/Yesilada-Kugler-Genna-Tanrikulu/p/book/9781138283497
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Strengthening Electoral Integrity: The Pragmatic Case for Assistance

Pippa Norris

The trilogy of books from the Electoral Integrity Project has focused upon three core questions:




  • What happens when elections violate international standards of electoral integrity?

  • Why do elections fail?

  • And what can be done to mitigate these problems?



Today a general mood of pessimism surrounds Western efforts to strengthen elections and democracy abroad. Observers claim that democracy is in decline or retreat. Skepticism among scholars has spread to political leaders. Donald Trump calls American attempts to build democracy from Iraq to Egypt to Libya a dangerous mistake triggering instability and chaos. This fuels isolationist calls for Western powers to abandon nation-building abroad and put domestic interests first.



To counter the prevailing ethos, this book presents new evidence for the pragmatic case why international programs of electoral assistance work. Systematic research demonstrates that electoral integrity is strengthened by a series of practical projects where international organizations and bilateral donors support the efforts of local stakeholders –to reform electoral laws, strengthen women’s representation, promote the independent media, regulate political money, and improve voter registration.



Success should not be exaggerated. Not everything works, by any means. Electoral assistance is most effective where the strengths and weaknesses of international agencies and programs match the threats and opportunities facing reforms in each society.  Efforts are often greatest in the riskiest contexts. Expectations are commonly inflated. Agencies need to gather better evidence to evaluate programs. But this does not mean that international attempts to strengthen elections should be reduced or even abandoned. Since 1948, the world has been committed to supporting free and fair contests reflecting the general will of the people. It would be a tragedy to undermine progress now by slipping backwards, withdrawing from international engagement, neglecting requests for support by local reformers, and thereby weakening prospects for democracy and fundamental electoral rights to self-determination.

 
External link: https://sites.google.com/site/pippanorris3/publications/books/strengthening-electoral-integrity
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Changing Values in the Islamic World and the West: Social Tolerance and the Arab Spring
Chapter 1 in "Values, Political Action, and Change in the Middle East and the Arab Spring"
Ronald Inglehart
About 45 years ago, I suggested “a transformation may be taking place in the political culture of advanced industrial societies. This transformation seems to be altering the basic value priorities of given generations as a result of changing con- ditions influencing their basic socialization” (Inglehart, 1971, p. 991). This chapter traces the evolution of values in Western countries since 1970, and examines to what extent similar value changes are transforming other countries today, with special attention to Muslim-majority countries.
 
External link: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/values-political-action-and-change-in-the-middle-east-and-the-arab-spring-9780190269098?cc=lt&lang=en&

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Modernization, Existential Security and Cultural Change: Reshaping Human Motivations and Society
(chapter in "Advances in Culture and Psychology")
Ronald Inglehart
In recent decades, rising levels of economic and physical security have been reshaping human values and motivations, and thereby transforming societies. Economic and physical insecurity are conducive to xenophobia, strong in-group solidarity, authoritarian politics and rigid adherence to traditional cultural norms; conversely, secure conditions lead to greater tolerance of outgroups, openness to new ideas and more egalitarian social norms.
Existential security shapes societies and cultures in two ways. Modernization increases prevailing security levels, producing pervasive cultural changes in developed countries. But long before this happened, substantial cross-sectional cultural difference already existed, reflecting historical differences in vulnerability to disease and other factors. Analysts working from different perspectives have described these cultural differences as Collectivism versus Individualism, Materialism versus Postmaterialism, Survival versus Self-expression values, or Autonomy versus Embeddedness, but they all tap a common dimension of cross-cultural variation that reflects different levels of existential security.

Keywords: Existential security, modernization, cultural change, xenophobia, authoritarianism, individualism, autonomy, Postmaterialism, self-expression values.
 
External link: https://global.oup.com/academic/content/series/a/advances-in-culture-and-psychology-acp/?lang=en&cc=lt

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Trump and the Xenophobic Populist Parties: The Silent Revolution in Reverse

Ronald Inglehart, Pippa Norris

Over forty years ago, The Silent Revolution thesis argued that when people grow up taking survival for granted it makes them more open to new ideas and more tolerant of outgroups. Consequently, the unprecedentedly high level of existential security that emerged in developed democracies after World War II, was giving rise to an intergenerational shift toward Postmaterialist values, bringing greater emphasis on freedom of expression, environmental protection, gender equality, and tolerance of gays, handicapped people and foreigners. Insecurity has the opposite effect. For most its existence, humanity lived just above the starvation level and under extreme scarcity, xenophobia becomes realistic: when a tribe’s territory produces just enough food to sustain it, and another tribe moves in, it can be a struggle in which one tribe or the other survives. Insecurity encourages an authoritarian xenophobic reaction in which people close ranks behind strong leaders, with strong in-group solidarity, rejection of outsiders, and rigid conformity to group norms, in a struggle for survival against dangerous outsiders. Conversely, the high levels of existential security that emerged after World War II gave more room for free choice and openness to outsiders During the postwar era, the people of developed countries experienced peace, unprecedented prosperity and the emergence of advanced welfare states, making survival more secure than ever before. Postwar birth cohorts grew up taking survival for granted, bringing an intergenerational shift toward Postmaterialist values. Survival is such a central goal that when it is threatened, it dominates people’s life strategy. Conversely, when it can be taken for granted, it opens the way for new norms concerning everything from economic behavior to sexual orientation and the spread of democratic institutions. Compared with previously prevailing values, which emphasized economic and physical security above all, Postmaterialists are less conformist, more open to new ideas, less authoritarian, and more tolerant of outgroups. But these values depend on high levels of economic and physical security. They did not emerge in low-income countries, and were most prevalent among the younger and more secure strata of high-income countries. Security shaped these values in two ways: (1) through an intergenerational shift toward Postmaterialism based on birth cohort effects: younger cohorts that had grown up under secure conditions, gradually replaced older ones who had been shaped by two World Wars and the Great Depression; and (2) through period effects: people respond to current conditions as well as to their formative experiences, with economic downturns making all birth cohorts less Postmaterialist, and rising prosperity having the opposite effect.

The 35 years of rapid economic growth and expanding opportunities that developed democracies experienced following WWII brought pervasive cultural changes contributing to the rise of Green parties and the spread of democracy. But during the most recent 35 years, while these countries still had significant economic growth, virtually all of the gains went to those at the top; the less-educated experienced declining real income and a sharply declining relative position that fueled support for populist authoritarian parties. Postmaterialism eventually became its own grave-digger.

 
External link: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/perspectives-on-politics

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The Civic Culture Transformed
From Allegiant to Assertive Citizens
under edition of Russel Dalton and Christian Welzel in honor of Ronald Inglehart
This book re-evaluates Almond, Verba, and Pye's original ideas about the shape of a civic culture that supports democracy. Marshaling a massive amount of cross-national, longitudinal public opinion data from the World Values Survey Association, the authors demonstrate multiple manifestations of a deep shift in the mass attitudes and behaviors that undergird democracy. The chapters in this book show that in dozens of countries around the world, citizens have turned away from allegiance toward a decidedly 'assertive' posture to politics: they have become more distrustful of electoral politics, institutions, and representatives and are more ready to confront elites with demands from below. Most importantly, societies that have advanced the most in the transition from an allegiant to an assertive model of citizenship are better-performing democracies - in terms of both accountable and effective governance.
 
External link: http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/politics-international-relations/comparative-politics/civic-culture-transformed-allegiant-assertive-citizens?format=PB
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A World of Three Cultures
Honor, Achievement and Joy
Miguel E. Basáñez and Foreword by Ronald F. Inglehart
In this book, Miguel Basáñez presents a provocative look at the impact of culture on global development. Drawing on data from governments, NGOs, the World Values Survey and more addressing over one hundred countries, he argues that values, as the "building blocks" of culture, are directly related to the speed with which social, cultural and economic development occurs. Basáñez utilizes quantitative survey data to delineate three cultural hyperclusters across the globe: cultures of honor, which prioritize political authority; cultures of achievement, which emphasize economic advancement; and cultures of joy, which focus on social interactions. According to Basáñez, these cultures evolved chronologically, mirroring the development of agrarian, industrial and service societies. He argues that a country's developmental path is profoundly influenced by its people's values and culture, as crystallized through its formal and informal governing institutions. Culture is passed down over generations through families, schools, the media, religious institutions, leadership, and the law. Although culture and values are in a permanent state of evolution, leaders and policymakers can also push cultural change in order to promote desirable goals such as economic growth, democratization, and equality.
 
External link: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/a-world-of-three-cultures-9780190270377?cc=at&lang=en&
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25 Years of Comparative Values Surveys [Yilmaz Esmer and Thorleif Pettersson, editors.]
A Clash of Civilizations? Preferences for Religious Political Leaders in 86 Nations [Nate Breznau, Valerie A. Lykes, Jonathan Kelley, M. D. R. Evans]
A World of Three Cultures [Miguel E. Basáñez and Foreword by Ronald F. Inglehart]
Agency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
America's Crisis of Values [Wayne E. Baker]
Are Levels of Democracy Affected by Mass Attitudes? [Welzel, C.]
Attitudes Toward Democracy: Mexico in Comparative Perspective. [Moreno, A. & Méndez, P.]
Authority orientations and democratic attitudes in East Asia: a test of the 'Asian Values' hypothesis [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc]
Authority Orientations and Political Support: A Cross-national Analysis of Satisfaction with Governments and Democracy. [Nevitte, N. & Kanji, M.]
Basic Values and Civic Education - A comparative analysis of adolescent orientations towards gender equality and good citizenship [Pettersson, T.]
Before the Emergence of Critical Citizens: Economic Development and Political Trust in China [Wang, Zhengxu]
Citizen-making: The role of national goals for socializing children. [Michael Harris Bond, Vivian Miu-Chi Lun]
Civil Society and Social Capital in Vietnam [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc]
Climatoeconomic Roots of Survival Versus Self-expression Cultures [Van de Vliert, E.]
Closer to the East or the West? [Rádai, E. & Tóth, I. G.]
Commentary on Widmalm: A Rebuttal [Welzel, C., Inglehart, R. & Deutsch, F.]
Corruption and Democracy: A Cultural Assessment [Moreno, A.]
Corruption, Culture, and Communism [Sandholtz, W. & Taagepera, R.]
Cultural Barriers to Women's Leadership: A Worldwide Comparison [Inglehart, R. & Norris, P.]
Cultural Change, Slow and Fast: The Distinctive Trajectory of Norms Governing Gender Equality and Sexual Orientation [Ronald F. Inglehart, Eduard Ponarin, Ronald C. Inglehart]
Changing Mass Priorities: The Link between Modernization and Democracy [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Changing Values among Western Publics from 1970 to 2006 [Inglehart, R. F.]
Changing Values in the Islamic World and the West: Social Tolerance and the Arab Spring [Ronald Inglehart]
Changing Values, Persisting Cultures [Edited by Thorleif Pettersson and Yilmaz Esmer]
Declining Willingness to Fight in Wwars: The Individual-level Basis of the Long Peace [Ronald F. Inglehart, Bi Puranen, Christian Welzel]
Democracy and Markets: Citizen Values in the Pacific Rim Region [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc]
Democracy and Political Culture in Eastern Europe [by Hans-Dieter Klingemann (Editor), Dieter Fuchs (Editor), Jan Zielonka (Editor)]
Democratic Aspirations and Democratic Ideals: Citizen Orientations toward Democracy in East Asia [Dalton, R. J. & Doh Chull Shin]
Democratic Institutions and Political Culture: Misconceptions in Addressing the Ecological Fallacy [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Democratization [Edited by Christian Haerpfer, Patrick Bernhagen, Ronald F Inglehart, and Christian Welzel]
Democratization as an Emancipative Process [Welzel, C.]
Democratization as the Growth of Freedom: The Human Development Perspective [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Democratization in the Human Development Perspective [Welzel, C.]
Demokratisierung und Freiheitsstreben: Die Perspektive der Humanentwicklung [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Development and Democracy: What We Know about Modernization Today [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Development, Freedom and Rising Happiness: A Global Perspective 1981-2007 [Inglehart, R., Foa, R., Peterson, C. & Welzel, C.]
Do Islamic Orientations Influence Attitudes Toward Democracy in the Arab World? - Evidence from Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Algeria [Tessler, M.]
Dynamics of Cultural Change: The Human Development Perspective [Abdollahian, Mark, Travis Coan, Hana Oh, and Birol Yesilada]
Effective democracy, mass culture, and the quality of elites: The human development perspective [Welzel, C.]
Emancipative Values and Democracy: Response to Hadenius and Teorell [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Examining the relation of religion and spirituality to subjective well-being across national cultures [Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Bond, Michael Harris]
Exploring the Unknown: Predicting the Responses of Publics not yet Surveyed [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Freedom Rising: Human Empowerment and the Quest for Emancipation [Welzel, Christian]
Gender Equality and Democracy [Inglehart, R., Norris, P., & Welzel, C.]
Genes, Culture, Democracy, and Happiness [Inglehart, R. & Klingemann, H-D.]
Genetic Factors, Cultural Predispositions, Happiness and Gender Equality [Ronald F. Inglehart, Svetlana Borinskaya, Anna Cotter, Jaanus Jarro, Ronald C. Inglehart, Eduard Ponarin, Christian Welzel]
Global Power Transition and the Future of the European Union [Birol A. Yeşilada, Jacek Kugler, Gaspare Genna, Osman Göktuğ Tanrıkulu]
Globalization and Postmodern Values [Inglehart, R.]
How do They Look at Us? [Samir Abu Rumman]
How Selfish Are Self-Expression Values? A Civicness Test [Welzel, C.]
Individual Modernity [Welzel, C.]
Intergenerational Differences in Political Values and Attitudes in Stable and New Democracies [Siemienska, R.]
Internet Appedix to the article by Alexander A.C. & C. Welzel [Alexander, A. C., & Welzel, C.]
Is There an Islamic Civilization? [Esmer, Y.]
Islam & the West: Testing the Clash of Civilizations Thesis [Norris, P. & Inglehart, R.]
Islam and global governance - Orientations towards the United Nations and Human Rights among four Islamic societies and four Western [Pettersson, T.]
Islamic attitudes and the support for Gender Equality and Democracy in Seven Arab Countries, and the role of anti-‐Western feelings [Spierings, Niels]
La escala de postmaterialismo como medida del cambio de valores en las sociedadas contemporanéas [Díez-Nicolás, J.]
La felicidad de las naciones [Marita Carballo]
Liberal Democracy and Peace in South Africa [Kotzé, H., du Toit, Pierre]
Liberalism, Postmaterialism, and the Growth of Freedom [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Mass Beliefs and Democratization [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Mexico's Evolving Democracy [J.Dominguez, K. Greene, Ch. Lawson, A. Moreno, eds.]
Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy [R.Inglehart & C.Welzel]
Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values [Inglehart, R. & Baker, W. E.]
Modernization, Existential Security and Cultural Change: Reshaping Human Motivations and Society [Ronald Inglehart]
Muslims and Democracy - An empirical critique of Fukuyama's culturalist approach [al-Braizat, F.]
Political Culture and Democracy: Analyzing Cross-Level Linkages [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Postmaterialism and the Social Ecosystem [Díez Nicolás, J.]
Religion, democratic values and political conflict [Y. Esmer, H. Klingemann, B. Puranen, editors]
Religous Parties and Politics in Pakistan [Tanwir, F.]
Revising the Value Shift Hypothesis: A descriptive Analysis of South Africa's Value Priorities between 1990 and 2001. [Kotzé, H. & Lombard, K.]
Rising Tide [Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris]
Sacred and Secular [Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart]
Social Capital, Voluntary Associations and Collective Action: Which Aspects of Social Capital Have the Greatest [Welzel, C., Inglehart, R. & Deutsch, F.]
Social position, information and postmaterialism [Díez Nicolás, J.]
Social Relations and Social Capital in Vietnam: Findings from the 2001 World Values Survey [Dalton, R. J., Pham Minh Hac, Pham Thanh Nghi and Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T]
Social Relations and Social Capital in Vietnam: The 2001 World Values Survey [Dalton, R. J., Pham Minh Hac, Pham Thanh Nghi & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T]
Strengthening Electoral Integrity: The Pragmatic Case for Assistance [Pippa Norris]
Subjective Security in Spain: Building a Syntethical Security Index (SSSI) [Juan Díez Nicolás]
Subjective well-being rankings of 82 societies (based on combined Happiness and Life Satisfaction scores) [Inglehart, R.]
TABLES: Before the Emergence of Critical Citizens: Economic Development and Political Trust in China [Wang, Zhengxu]
TABLES: The Social Transformation of Trust in Government [Dalton, R. J.]
Tendencias mundiales de cambio en los valores sociales y politicos [Diez Nicolas, J., Inglehart, R., eds.]
The Civic Culture Transformed [under edition of Russel Dalton and Christian Welzel in honor of Ronald Inglehart]
The China Puzzle: Declining Happiness in a Rising Economy [Brockmann, H., J. Delhay, H. Yuan & Welzel, C.]
The Origins of Gender Roles: Women and the Plough [Alesina, A., Giuliano, P. & Nunn, N.]
The relations between religion and politics in the contemporary Western world: The impact of secularization, postmodernization and peoples' basic value orientations [Pettersson, T.]
The Role of Ordinary People in Democratization [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
The Social Transformation of Trust in Government [Dalton, R. J.]
The theory of human development: A cross-cultural analysis [Welzel, C., Inglehart, R. & Klingemann, H-D.]
The Vietnamese Public in Transition, The World Values Survey: Vietnam 2001 [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T]
The Worldviews of Islamic Publics in Global Perspective [Inglehart, R.]
The Worldviews of Islamic Publics: The Cases of Egypt, Iran, and Jordan [Moaddel, M. & Azadarmaki, Taqhi]
Theories of Democratization [Welzel, C.]
Trends in Political Action: The Developmental Trend and the Post-Honeymoon Decline [Inglehart, R. & Catterberg, G.]
Trump and the Xenophobic Populist Parties: The Silent Revolution in Reverse [Ronald Inglehart, Pippa Norris]
Two Contradictory Hypotheses on Globalization: Societal Convergence or Civilization Differentiation and Clash [Díez-Nicolás, J.]
Value Change in Latin America [Marita Carballo and Alejandro Moreno. Eds.]
Value Priorities in Israeli Society: An Examination of Inglehart's Theory of Modernization and Cultural Variation. [Yuchtman-Ya'ar, E.]
Values and Perceptions of the Islamic and Middle Eastern Publics [Mansoor Moaddell, ed.]
Voting in Old and New Democracies [by Richard Gunther (Editor), Paul A. Beck (Editor), Pedro C. Magalhães (Editor), Alejandro Moreno (Editor)]
What Insights can Multi-Country Surveys Provide about People and Societies? [Inglehart, Ronald and Welzel, Christian]
Why Are Women Politically Active? - The Household, Public Space, and Political Participation in India [Chhibber, P.]
Why Elections Fail [Pippa Norris]
Why Electoral Integrity Matters [Pippa Norris]