A Tale of Culture-Bound Regime Evolution: The Centennial Democratic Trend and Its Recent Reversal (Appendix to the article)

Christian Welzel, Lennart Brunkert, Stefan Kruse
Using a new measure of “comprehensive democracy,” our analysis traces the global democratic trend over the last 116 years, from 1900 till 2016, looking in particular at the centennial trend’s cultural zoning. As it turns out, democracy has been proceeding and continues to differentiate the world’s nations in a strongly culture-bound manner: high levels of democracy remain a distinctive feature of nations in which emancipative values have grown strong over the generations. By the same token, backsliding and autocratization are limited to cultures with under-developed emancipative values. In line with this finding, public support for democracy neither favors democratization, nor does it prevent autocratization in disjunction from emancipative values. On the contrary, public support for democracy shows such pro-democratic effects if—and only if—it co-exists in close association with emancipative values. The reason is that—in disconnect from emancipative values—support for democracy frequently reverts its meaning, indicating the exact opposite of what intuition suggests: namely, support for autocracy. In conclusion, the prospects for democracy are bleak where emancipative values remain weak.

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The Silent Revolution in Reverse
Trump and the Xenophobic Authoritarian Populist Parties
Inglehart, R., Miller, J., Woods, L.
More than forty years ago, The Silent Revolution (Inglehart, 1977) argued that the unprecedentedly high levels of existential security experienced in developed democracies during the postwar decades was bringing an intergenerational shift from Materialist values that emphasized economic and physical security above all, to Postmaterialist values that gave to priority to individual autonomy and self-expression. Rising emphasis on Postmaterialist values eventually brought massive social and political changes, from stronger environmental protection policies and anti-war movements, to higher levels of gender equality in government, business and academic life, greater tolerance of gays, handicapped people and foreigners and the spread of democracy. Postwar prosperity brought these changes with a substantial time lag, since they moved at the pace of intergenerational population replacement; and though high levels of security were conducive to these changes, short-term economic downturns brought temporary reversions to Materialist values.
During the past three decades, a growing share of the publics of high-income countries has experienced declining real income and job security, in context with a large flow of immigrants. This has fueled support for xenophobic populist authoritarian movements such as British exit from the European Union, France’s National Front and Donald Trump’s rise to power. The Silent Revolution dynamic is still at work, but it is now moving in reverse. For example, in the 2016 U.S. Presidential election, pure Materialists were nearly four times as likely to have voted for Trump as for Clinton—while pure Postmaterialists were fourteen times as likely to have voted for Clinton as for Trump. This value-based cleavage has become much stronger than the once-powerful cleavages based on income, education, occupation or social class.

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Cultural Evolution
People's Motivations are Changing, and Reshaping the World
Ronald Inglehart
Cultural Evolution argues that people's values and behavior are shaped by the degree to which survival is secure; it was precarious for most of history, which encouraged heavy emphasis on group solidarity, rejection of outsiders, and obedience to strong leaders. For under extreme scarcity, xenophobia is realistic: if there is just enough land to support one tribe and another tribe tries to claim it, survival may literally be a choice between Us and Them. Conversely, high levels of existential security encourage openness to change, diversity, and new ideas. The unprecedented prosperity and security of the postwar era brought cultural change, the environmentalist movement, and the spread of democracy. But in recent decades, diminishing job security and rising inequality have led to an authoritarian reaction. Evidence from more than 100 countries demonstrates that people's motivations and behavior reflect the extent to which they take survival for granted - and that modernization changes them in roughly predictable ways. This book explains the rise of environmentalist parties, gender equality, and same-sex marriage through a new, empirically-tested version of modernization theory.
 
External link: www.cambridge.org/9781108489317

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Socio-Cultural Differences in Social Exclusion

Diez-Nicolas, J., Lopez-Narbona, A.-M.
The main object of this research is to describe social exclusion in a comparative world perspective. Social exclusion is a main concern worldwide. Non-desirable social groups as neighbours are used as a proxy measure to answer three questions: who are the most excluded social groups, who are the excluders, and what are the main explanatory variables of social exclusion. Social exclusion, as a multidimensional phenomenon, is defined in relation to concepts such as stigma, discrimination, and prejudice. Social, economic, political and ideological-religious attitudes are used to construct the profile of the excluder. Social exclusion has been measured through three indexes of social exclusion, personal, group and total exclusion, since a main component analysis demonstrated that the degree of social exclusion varied depending on whether the excluded group was more or less based on personal decisions on one’s behaviour taken by the individual. Based on theory and previous research, four main variables have been tested to explain social exclusion: social position, exposure to information, post-materialist values and perception of security. But other explanatory variables were also added to the analysis. EVS and WVS databases (from 1981 to 2014) have been used, though most of the analysis has been based on the last WVS-6th wave on 59 countries with a total of more than 85,000 interviews.
 
External link: http://dx.doi.org/10.15826/csp.2018.2.2.033
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Global Power Transition and the Future of the European Union

Birol A. Yeşilada, Jacek Kugler, Gaspare Genna, Osman Göktuğ Tanrıkulu
The book examines factors behind the decline of the EU relative to the rise of China and other powers in the global hierarchy and what policy options are available for EU leaders to implement in order to compete as a global actor. It analyses determinants of regional integration and key policy challenges the EU faces in its quest for an "ever deeper union," and identifies significant factors (i.e., power relations, economic relations, emergent social values across the EU) that can explain the likelihood of further integration or conflict between EU member states.
This text will be essential reading for scholars, students, and practitioners interested in European Union politics international relations, security studies, and comparative politics.
 
External link: https://www.routledge.com/Global-Power-Transition-and-the-Future-of-the-European-Union/Yesilada-Kugler-Genna-Tanrikulu/p/book/9781138283497
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Strengthening Electoral Integrity: The Pragmatic Case for Assistance

Pippa Norris

The trilogy of books from the Electoral Integrity Project has focused upon three core questions:




  • What happens when elections violate international standards of electoral integrity?

  • Why do elections fail?

  • And what can be done to mitigate these problems?



Today a general mood of pessimism surrounds Western efforts to strengthen elections and democracy abroad. Observers claim that democracy is in decline or retreat. Skepticism among scholars has spread to political leaders. Donald Trump calls American attempts to build democracy from Iraq to Egypt to Libya a dangerous mistake triggering instability and chaos. This fuels isolationist calls for Western powers to abandon nation-building abroad and put domestic interests first.



To counter the prevailing ethos, this book presents new evidence for the pragmatic case why international programs of electoral assistance work. Systematic research demonstrates that electoral integrity is strengthened by a series of practical projects where international organizations and bilateral donors support the efforts of local stakeholders –to reform electoral laws, strengthen women’s representation, promote the independent media, regulate political money, and improve voter registration.



Success should not be exaggerated. Not everything works, by any means. Electoral assistance is most effective where the strengths and weaknesses of international agencies and programs match the threats and opportunities facing reforms in each society.  Efforts are often greatest in the riskiest contexts. Expectations are commonly inflated. Agencies need to gather better evidence to evaluate programs. But this does not mean that international attempts to strengthen elections should be reduced or even abandoned. Since 1948, the world has been committed to supporting free and fair contests reflecting the general will of the people. It would be a tragedy to undermine progress now by slipping backwards, withdrawing from international engagement, neglecting requests for support by local reformers, and thereby weakening prospects for democracy and fundamental electoral rights to self-determination.

 
External link: https://sites.google.com/site/pippanorris3/publications/books/strengthening-electoral-integrity
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Changing Values in the Islamic World and the West: Social Tolerance and the Arab Spring
Chapter 1 in "Values, Political Action, and Change in the Middle East and the Arab Spring"
Ronald Inglehart
About 45 years ago, I suggested “a transformation may be taking place in the political culture of advanced industrial societies. This transformation seems to be altering the basic value priorities of given generations as a result of changing con- ditions influencing their basic socialization” (Inglehart, 1971, p. 991). This chapter traces the evolution of values in Western countries since 1970, and examines to what extent similar value changes are transforming other countries today, with special attention to Muslim-majority countries.
 
External link: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/values-political-action-and-change-in-the-middle-east-and-the-arab-spring-9780190269098?cc=lt&lang=en&

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Modernization, Existential Security and Cultural Change: Reshaping Human Motivations and Society
(chapter in "Advances in Culture and Psychology")
Ronald Inglehart
In recent decades, rising levels of economic and physical security have been reshaping human values and motivations, and thereby transforming societies. Economic and physical insecurity are conducive to xenophobia, strong in-group solidarity, authoritarian politics and rigid adherence to traditional cultural norms; conversely, secure conditions lead to greater tolerance of outgroups, openness to new ideas and more egalitarian social norms.
Existential security shapes societies and cultures in two ways. Modernization increases prevailing security levels, producing pervasive cultural changes in developed countries. But long before this happened, substantial cross-sectional cultural difference already existed, reflecting historical differences in vulnerability to disease and other factors. Analysts working from different perspectives have described these cultural differences as Collectivism versus Individualism, Materialism versus Postmaterialism, Survival versus Self-expression values, or Autonomy versus Embeddedness, but they all tap a common dimension of cross-cultural variation that reflects different levels of existential security.

Keywords: Existential security, modernization, cultural change, xenophobia, authoritarianism, individualism, autonomy, Postmaterialism, self-expression values.
 
External link: https://global.oup.com/academic/content/series/a/advances-in-culture-and-psychology-acp/?lang=en&cc=lt

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Trump and the Xenophobic Populist Parties: The Silent Revolution in Reverse

Ronald Inglehart, Pippa Norris

Over forty years ago, The Silent Revolution thesis argued that when people grow up taking survival for granted it makes them more open to new ideas and more tolerant of outgroups. Consequently, the unprecedentedly high level of existential security that emerged in developed democracies after World War II, was giving rise to an intergenerational shift toward Postmaterialist values, bringing greater emphasis on freedom of expression, environmental protection, gender equality, and tolerance of gays, handicapped people and foreigners. Insecurity has the opposite effect. For most its existence, humanity lived just above the starvation level and under extreme scarcity, xenophobia becomes realistic: when a tribe’s territory produces just enough food to sustain it, and another tribe moves in, it can be a struggle in which one tribe or the other survives. Insecurity encourages an authoritarian xenophobic reaction in which people close ranks behind strong leaders, with strong in-group solidarity, rejection of outsiders, and rigid conformity to group norms, in a struggle for survival against dangerous outsiders. Conversely, the high levels of existential security that emerged after World War II gave more room for free choice and openness to outsiders During the postwar era, the people of developed countries experienced peace, unprecedented prosperity and the emergence of advanced welfare states, making survival more secure than ever before. Postwar birth cohorts grew up taking survival for granted, bringing an intergenerational shift toward Postmaterialist values. Survival is such a central goal that when it is threatened, it dominates people’s life strategy. Conversely, when it can be taken for granted, it opens the way for new norms concerning everything from economic behavior to sexual orientation and the spread of democratic institutions. Compared with previously prevailing values, which emphasized economic and physical security above all, Postmaterialists are less conformist, more open to new ideas, less authoritarian, and more tolerant of outgroups. But these values depend on high levels of economic and physical security. They did not emerge in low-income countries, and were most prevalent among the younger and more secure strata of high-income countries. Security shaped these values in two ways: (1) through an intergenerational shift toward Postmaterialism based on birth cohort effects: younger cohorts that had grown up under secure conditions, gradually replaced older ones who had been shaped by two World Wars and the Great Depression; and (2) through period effects: people respond to current conditions as well as to their formative experiences, with economic downturns making all birth cohorts less Postmaterialist, and rising prosperity having the opposite effect.

The 35 years of rapid economic growth and expanding opportunities that developed democracies experienced following WWII brought pervasive cultural changes contributing to the rise of Green parties and the spread of democracy. But during the most recent 35 years, while these countries still had significant economic growth, virtually all of the gains went to those at the top; the less-educated experienced declining real income and a sharply declining relative position that fueled support for populist authoritarian parties. Postmaterialism eventually became its own grave-digger.

 
External link: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/perspectives-on-politics

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The Civic Culture Transformed
From Allegiant to Assertive Citizens
under edition of Russel Dalton and Christian Welzel in honor of Ronald Inglehart
This book re-evaluates Almond, Verba, and Pye's original ideas about the shape of a civic culture that supports democracy. Marshaling a massive amount of cross-national, longitudinal public opinion data from the World Values Survey Association, the authors demonstrate multiple manifestations of a deep shift in the mass attitudes and behaviors that undergird democracy. The chapters in this book show that in dozens of countries around the world, citizens have turned away from allegiance toward a decidedly 'assertive' posture to politics: they have become more distrustful of electoral politics, institutions, and representatives and are more ready to confront elites with demands from below. Most importantly, societies that have advanced the most in the transition from an allegiant to an assertive model of citizenship are better-performing democracies - in terms of both accountable and effective governance.
 
External link: http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/politics-international-relations/comparative-politics/civic-culture-transformed-allegiant-assertive-citizens?format=PB
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A World of Three Cultures
Honor, Achievement and Joy
Miguel E. Basáñez and Foreword by Ronald F. Inglehart
In this book, Miguel Basáñez presents a provocative look at the impact of culture on global development. Drawing on data from governments, NGOs, the World Values Survey and more addressing over one hundred countries, he argues that values, as the "building blocks" of culture, are directly related to the speed with which social, cultural and economic development occurs. Basáñez utilizes quantitative survey data to delineate three cultural hyperclusters across the globe: cultures of honor, which prioritize political authority; cultures of achievement, which emphasize economic advancement; and cultures of joy, which focus on social interactions. According to Basáñez, these cultures evolved chronologically, mirroring the development of agrarian, industrial and service societies. He argues that a country's developmental path is profoundly influenced by its people's values and culture, as crystallized through its formal and informal governing institutions. Culture is passed down over generations through families, schools, the media, religious institutions, leadership, and the law. Although culture and values are in a permanent state of evolution, leaders and policymakers can also push cultural change in order to promote desirable goals such as economic growth, democratization, and equality.
 
External link: https://global.oup.com/academic/product/a-world-of-three-cultures-9780190270377?cc=at&lang=en&
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Search text:
25 Years of Comparative Values Surveys [Yilmaz Esmer and Thorleif Pettersson, editors.]
A Clash of Civilizations? Preferences for Religious Political Leaders in 86 Nations [Nate Breznau, Valerie A. Lykes, Jonathan Kelley, M. D. R. Evans]
A Tale of Culture-Bound Regime Evolution: The Centennial Democratic Trend and Its Recent Reversal (Appendix to the article) [Christian Welzel, Lennart Brunkert, Stefan Kruse]
A World of Three Cultures [Miguel E. Basáñez and Foreword by Ronald F. Inglehart]
Agency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
America's Crisis of Values [Wayne E. Baker]
Are Levels of Democracy Affected by Mass Attitudes? [Welzel, C.]
Attitudes Toward Democracy: Mexico in Comparative Perspective. [Moreno, A. & Méndez, P.]
Authority orientations and democratic attitudes in East Asia: a test of the 'Asian Values' hypothesis [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc]
Authority Orientations and Political Support: A Cross-national Analysis of Satisfaction with Governments and Democracy. [Nevitte, N. & Kanji, M.]
Basic Values and Civic Education - A comparative analysis of adolescent orientations towards gender equality and good citizenship [Pettersson, T.]
Before the Emergence of Critical Citizens: Economic Development and Political Trust in China [Wang, Zhengxu]
Citizen-making: The role of national goals for socializing children. [Michael Harris Bond, Vivian Miu-Chi Lun]
Civil Society and Social Capital in Vietnam [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc]
Climatoeconomic Roots of Survival Versus Self-expression Cultures [Van de Vliert, E.]
Closer to the East or the West? [Rádai, E. & Tóth, I. G.]
Commentary on Widmalm: A Rebuttal [Welzel, C., Inglehart, R. & Deutsch, F.]
Corruption and Democracy: A Cultural Assessment [Moreno, A.]
Corruption, Culture, and Communism [Sandholtz, W. & Taagepera, R.]
Cultural Barriers to Women's Leadership: A Worldwide Comparison [Inglehart, R. & Norris, P.]
Cultural Change, Slow and Fast: The Distinctive Trajectory of Norms Governing Gender Equality and Sexual Orientation [Ronald F. Inglehart, Eduard Ponarin, Ronald C. Inglehart]
Cultural Evolution [Ronald Inglehart]
Changing Mass Priorities: The Link between Modernization and Democracy [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Changing Values among Western Publics from 1970 to 2006 [Inglehart, R. F.]
Changing Values in the Islamic World and the West: Social Tolerance and the Arab Spring [Ronald Inglehart]
Changing Values, Persisting Cultures [Edited by Thorleif Pettersson and Yilmaz Esmer]
Declining Willingness to Fight in Wwars: The Individual-level Basis of the Long Peace [Ronald F. Inglehart, Bi Puranen, Christian Welzel]
Democracy and Markets: Citizen Values in the Pacific Rim Region [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc]
Democracy and Political Culture in Eastern Europe [by Hans-Dieter Klingemann (Editor), Dieter Fuchs (Editor), Jan Zielonka (Editor)]
Democracy Misunderstood: Authoritarian Notions of Democracy around the Globe (online appendix to the article) [Welzel, C., Kirsch, H.]
Democratic Aspirations and Democratic Ideals: Citizen Orientations toward Democracy in East Asia [Dalton, R. J. & Doh Chull Shin]
Democratic Institutions and Political Culture: Misconceptions in Addressing the Ecological Fallacy [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Democratization [Edited by Christian Haerpfer, Patrick Bernhagen, Ronald F Inglehart, and Christian Welzel]
Democratization as an Emancipative Process [Welzel, C.]
Democratization as the Growth of Freedom: The Human Development Perspective [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Democratization in the Human Development Perspective [Welzel, C.]
Demokratisierung und Freiheitsstreben: Die Perspektive der Humanentwicklung [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Development and Democracy: What We Know about Modernization Today [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Development, Freedom and Rising Happiness: A Global Perspective 1981-2007 [Inglehart, R., Foa, R., Peterson, C. & Welzel, C.]
Do Islamic Orientations Influence Attitudes Toward Democracy in the Arab World? - Evidence from Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Algeria [Tessler, M.]
Dynamics of Cultural Change: The Human Development Perspective [Abdollahian, Mark, Travis Coan, Hana Oh, and Birol Yesilada]
Effective democracy, mass culture, and the quality of elites: The human development perspective [Welzel, C.]
Emancipative Values and Democracy: Response to Hadenius and Teorell [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Examining the relation of religion and spirituality to subjective well-being across national cultures [Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Bond, Michael Harris]
Exploring the Unknown: Predicting the Responses of Publics not yet Surveyed [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Freedom Rising: Human Empowerment and the Quest for Emancipation [Welzel, Christian]
Gender Equality and Democracy [Inglehart, R., Norris, P., & Welzel, C.]
Genes, Culture, Democracy, and Happiness [Inglehart, R. & Klingemann, H-D.]
Genetic Factors, Cultural Predispositions, Happiness and Gender Equality [Ronald F. Inglehart, Svetlana Borinskaya, Anna Cotter, Jaanus Jarro, Ronald C. Inglehart, Eduard Ponarin, Christian Welzel]
Global Power Transition and the Future of the European Union [Birol A. Yeşilada, Jacek Kugler, Gaspare Genna, Osman Göktuğ Tanrıkulu]
Globalization and Postmodern Values [Inglehart, R.]
How do They Look at Us? [Samir Abu Rumman]
How Selfish Are Self-Expression Values? A Civicness Test [Welzel, C.]
Individual Modernity [Welzel, C.]
Intergenerational Differences in Political Values and Attitudes in Stable and New Democracies [Siemienska, R.]
Internet Appedix to the article by Alexander A.C. & C. Welzel [Alexander, A. C., & Welzel, C.]
Is There an Islamic Civilization? [Esmer, Y.]
Islam & the West: Testing the Clash of Civilizations Thesis [Norris, P. & Inglehart, R.]
Islam and global governance - Orientations towards the United Nations and Human Rights among four Islamic societies and four Western [Pettersson, T.]
Islamic attitudes and the support for Gender Equality and Democracy in Seven Arab Countries, and the role of anti-‐Western feelings [Spierings, Niels]
La escala de postmaterialismo como medida del cambio de valores en las sociedadas contemporanéas [Díez-Nicolás, J.]
La felicidad de las naciones [Marita Carballo]
Liberal Democracy and Peace in South Africa [Kotzé, H., du Toit, Pierre]
Liberalism, Postmaterialism, and the Growth of Freedom [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Mass Beliefs and Democratization [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Mexico's Evolving Democracy [J.Dominguez, K. Greene, Ch. Lawson, A. Moreno, eds.]
Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy [R.Inglehart & C.Welzel]
Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values [Inglehart, R. & Baker, W. E.]
Modernization, Existential Security and Cultural Change: Reshaping Human Motivations and Society [Ronald Inglehart]
Muslims and Democracy - An empirical critique of Fukuyama's culturalist approach [al-Braizat, F.]
Political Culture and Democracy: Analyzing Cross-Level Linkages [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Postmaterialism and the Social Ecosystem [Díez Nicolás, J.]
Religion, democratic values and political conflict [Y. Esmer, H. Klingemann, B. Puranen, editors]
Religous Parties and Politics in Pakistan [Tanwir, F.]
Revising the Value Shift Hypothesis: A descriptive Analysis of South Africa's Value Priorities between 1990 and 2001. [Kotzé, H. & Lombard, K.]
Rising Tide [Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris]
Sacred and Secular [Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart]
Social Capital, Voluntary Associations and Collective Action: Which Aspects of Social Capital Have the Greatest [Welzel, C., Inglehart, R. & Deutsch, F.]
Social position, information and postmaterialism [Díez Nicolás, J.]
Social Relations and Social Capital in Vietnam: Findings from the 2001 World Values Survey [Dalton, R. J., Pham Minh Hac, Pham Thanh Nghi and Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T]
Social Relations and Social Capital in Vietnam: The 2001 World Values Survey [Dalton, R. J., Pham Minh Hac, Pham Thanh Nghi & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T]
Socio-Cultural Differences in Social Exclusion [Diez-Nicolas, J., Lopez-Narbona, A.-M.]
Strengthening Electoral Integrity: The Pragmatic Case for Assistance [Pippa Norris]
Subjective Security in Spain: Building a Syntethical Security Index (SSSI) [Juan Díez Nicolás]
Subjective well-being rankings of 82 societies (based on combined Happiness and Life Satisfaction scores) [Inglehart, R.]
TABLES: Before the Emergence of Critical Citizens: Economic Development and Political Trust in China [Wang, Zhengxu]
TABLES: The Social Transformation of Trust in Government [Dalton, R. J.]
Tendencias mundiales de cambio en los valores sociales y politicos [Diez Nicolas, J., Inglehart, R., eds.]
The Civic Culture Transformed [under edition of Russel Dalton and Christian Welzel in honor of Ronald Inglehart]
The China Puzzle: Declining Happiness in a Rising Economy [Brockmann, H., J. Delhay, H. Yuan & Welzel, C.]
The Origins of Gender Roles: Women and the Plough [Alesina, A., Giuliano, P. & Nunn, N.]
The relations between religion and politics in the contemporary Western world: The impact of secularization, postmodernization and peoples' basic value orientations [Pettersson, T.]
The Role of Ordinary People in Democratization [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
The Silent Revolution in Reverse [Inglehart, R., Miller, J., Woods, L.]
The Social Transformation of Trust in Government [Dalton, R. J.]
The theory of human development: A cross-cultural analysis [Welzel, C., Inglehart, R. & Klingemann, H-D.]
The Vietnamese Public in Transition, The World Values Survey: Vietnam 2001 [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T]
The Worldviews of Islamic Publics in Global Perspective [Inglehart, R.]
The Worldviews of Islamic Publics: The Cases of Egypt, Iran, and Jordan [Moaddel, M. & Azadarmaki, Taqhi]
Theories of Democratization [Welzel, C.]
Trends in Political Action: The Developmental Trend and the Post-Honeymoon Decline [Inglehart, R. & Catterberg, G.]
Trump and the Xenophobic Populist Parties: The Silent Revolution in Reverse [Ronald Inglehart, Pippa Norris]
Two Contradictory Hypotheses on Globalization: Societal Convergence or Civilization Differentiation and Clash [Díez-Nicolás, J.]
Value Change in Latin America/ El cambio de valores en América Latina [Marita Carballo and Alejandro Moreno. Eds.]
Value Priorities in Israeli Society: An Examination of Inglehart's Theory of Modernization and Cultural Variation. [Yuchtman-Ya'ar, E.]
Values and Perceptions of the Islamic and Middle Eastern Publics [Mansoor Moaddell, ed.]
Voting in Old and New Democracies [by Richard Gunther (Editor), Paul A. Beck (Editor), Pedro C. Magalhães (Editor), Alejandro Moreno (Editor)]
What Insights can Multi-Country Surveys Provide about People and Societies? [Inglehart, Ronald and Welzel, Christian]
Why Are Women Politically Active? - The Household, Public Space, and Political Participation in India [Chhibber, P.]
Why Elections Fail [Pippa Norris]
Why Electoral Integrity Matters [Pippa Norris]