Unity, Plurality and/or Hybridity? Assessing the Global Pattern of Political Cultures
Volume 8 (4)
Schubert, S.

Many political culture researchers claim that democratic values are universal and worldwide democratization hence only a question of time. This universalist position has recently been challenged. Proponents of a pluralist position refer to cultural differences between civilizations and argue that some political values impede global democratization. Still other authors emphasize transcultural processes that lead to political hybridization rather than democratization by Western standards. These three positions have not yet been systematically confronted with empirical evidence. This article provides such an assessment of the current global pattern of political cultures. The (dis)similarities of up to 57 countries in terms of political values are mapped using data from the World Values Survey (2005-2008) and multidimensional scaling. The results show that while some democratic values do seem to be global phenomena, there is also evidence for regional variation and hybridity, especially regarding non-democratic values.



Key words: global map of political cultures, democratization, world culture, civilizations, hybridity.

Word count: 7,124 (version accepted August 16th 2015).

WVR_08_04_Schubert.pdf [Download count:386]

(Click for more...)
 
 
View by Author
View by Title
Search text:
25 Years of Comparative Values Surveys [Yilmaz Esmer and Thorleif Pettersson, editors.]
A Clash of Civilizations? Preferences for Religious Political Leaders in 86 Nations [Nate Breznau, Valerie A. Lykes, Jonathan Kelley, M. D. R. Evans]
A World of Three Cultures [Miguel E. Basáñez and Foreword by Ronald F. Inglehart]
Agency, Values, and Well-Being: A Human Development Model [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
America's Crisis of Values [Wayne E. Baker]
Are Levels of Democracy Affected by Mass Attitudes? [Welzel, C.]
Attitudes Toward Democracy: Mexico in Comparative Perspective. [Moreno, A. & Méndez, P.]
Authority orientations and democratic attitudes in East Asia: a test of the 'Asian Values' hypothesis [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc]
Authority Orientations and Political Support: A Cross-national Analysis of Satisfaction with Governments and Democracy. [Nevitte, N. & Kanji, M.]
Basic Values and Civic Education - A comparative analysis of adolescent orientations towards gender equality and good citizenship [Pettersson, T.]
Before the Emergence of Critical Citizens: Economic Development and Political Trust in China [Wang, Zhengxu]
Citizen-making: The role of national goals for socializing children. [Michael Harris Bond, Vivian Miu-Chi Lun]
Civil Society and Social Capital in Vietnam [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc]
Climatoeconomic Roots of Survival Versus Self-expression Cultures [Van de Vliert, E.]
Closer to the East or the West? [Rádai, E. & Tóth, I. G.]
Commentary on Widmalm: A Rebuttal [Welzel, C., Inglehart, R. & Deutsch, F.]
Corruption and Democracy: A Cultural Assessment [Moreno, A.]
Corruption, Culture, and Communism [Sandholtz, W. & Taagepera, R.]
Cultural Barriers to Women's Leadership: A Worldwide Comparison [Inglehart, R. & Norris, P.]
Cultural Change, Slow and Fast: The Distinctive Trajectory of Norms Governing Gender Equality and Sexual Orientation [Ronald F. Inglehart, Eduard Ponarin, Ronald C. Inglehart]
Changing Mass Priorities: The Link between Modernization and Democracy [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Changing Values among Western Publics from 1970 to 2006 [Inglehart, R. F.]
Changing Values in the Islamic World and the West: Social Tolerance and the Arab Spring [Ronald Inglehart]
Changing Values, Persisting Cultures [Edited by Thorleif Pettersson and Yilmaz Esmer]
Declining Willingness to Fight in Wwars: The Individual-level Basis of the Long Peace [Ronald F. Inglehart, Bi Puranen, Christian Welzel]
Democracy and Markets: Citizen Values in the Pacific Rim Region [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc]
Democracy and Political Culture in Eastern Europe [by Hans-Dieter Klingemann (Editor), Dieter Fuchs (Editor), Jan Zielonka (Editor)]
Democratic Aspirations and Democratic Ideals: Citizen Orientations toward Democracy in East Asia [Dalton, R. J. & Doh Chull Shin]
Democratic Institutions and Political Culture: Misconceptions in Addressing the Ecological Fallacy [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Democratization [Edited by Christian Haerpfer, Patrick Bernhagen, Ronald F Inglehart, and Christian Welzel]
Democratization as an Emancipative Process [Welzel, C.]
Democratization as the Growth of Freedom: The Human Development Perspective [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Democratization in the Human Development Perspective [Welzel, C.]
Demokratisierung und Freiheitsstreben: Die Perspektive der Humanentwicklung [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Development and Democracy: What We Know about Modernization Today [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Development, Freedom and Rising Happiness: A Global Perspective 1981-2007 [Inglehart, R., Foa, R., Peterson, C. & Welzel, C.]
Do Islamic Orientations Influence Attitudes Toward Democracy in the Arab World? - Evidence from Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Algeria [Tessler, M.]
Dynamics of Cultural Change: The Human Development Perspective [Abdollahian, Mark, Travis Coan, Hana Oh, and Birol Yesilada]
Effective democracy, mass culture, and the quality of elites: The human development perspective [Welzel, C.]
Emancipative Values and Democracy: Response to Hadenius and Teorell [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Examining the relation of religion and spirituality to subjective well-being across national cultures [Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Bond, Michael Harris]
Exploring the Unknown: Predicting the Responses of Publics not yet Surveyed [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Freedom Rising: Human Empowerment and the Quest for Emancipation [Welzel, Christian]
Gender Equality and Democracy [Inglehart, R., Norris, P., & Welzel, C.]
Genes, Culture, Democracy, and Happiness [Inglehart, R. & Klingemann, H-D.]
Genetic Factors, Cultural Predispositions, Happiness and Gender Equality [Ronald F. Inglehart, Svetlana Borinskaya, Anna Cotter, Jaanus Jarro, Ronald C. Inglehart, Eduard Ponarin, Christian Welzel]
Global Power Transition and the Future of the European Union [Birol A. Yeşilada, Jacek Kugler, Gaspare Genna, Osman Göktuğ Tanrıkulu]
Globalization and Postmodern Values [Inglehart, R.]
How do They Look at Us? [Samir Abu Rumman]
How Selfish Are Self-Expression Values? A Civicness Test [Welzel, C.]
Individual Modernity [Welzel, C.]
Intergenerational Differences in Political Values and Attitudes in Stable and New Democracies [Siemienska, R.]
Internet Appedix to the article by Alexander A.C. & C. Welzel [Alexander, A. C., & Welzel, C.]
Is There an Islamic Civilization? [Esmer, Y.]
Islam & the West: Testing the Clash of Civilizations Thesis [Norris, P. & Inglehart, R.]
Islam and global governance - Orientations towards the United Nations and Human Rights among four Islamic societies and four Western [Pettersson, T.]
Islamic attitudes and the support for Gender Equality and Democracy in Seven Arab Countries, and the role of anti-‐Western feelings [Spierings, Niels]
La escala de postmaterialismo como medida del cambio de valores en las sociedadas contemporanéas [Díez-Nicolás, J.]
La felicidad de las naciones [Marita Carballo]
Liberal Democracy and Peace in South Africa [Kotzé, H., du Toit, Pierre]
Liberalism, Postmaterialism, and the Growth of Freedom [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Mass Beliefs and Democratization [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
Mexico's Evolving Democracy [J.Dominguez, K. Greene, Ch. Lawson, A. Moreno, eds.]
Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy [R.Inglehart & C.Welzel]
Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values [Inglehart, R. & Baker, W. E.]
Modernization, Existential Security and Cultural Change: Reshaping Human Motivations and Society [Ronald Inglehart]
Muslims and Democracy - An empirical critique of Fukuyama's culturalist approach [al-Braizat, F.]
Political Culture and Democracy: Analyzing Cross-Level Linkages [Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Postmaterialism and the Social Ecosystem [Díez Nicolás, J.]
Religion, democratic values and political conflict [Y. Esmer, H. Klingemann, B. Puranen, editors]
Religous Parties and Politics in Pakistan [Tanwir, F.]
Revising the Value Shift Hypothesis: A descriptive Analysis of South Africa's Value Priorities between 1990 and 2001. [Kotzé, H. & Lombard, K.]
Rising Tide [Ronald Inglehart and Pippa Norris]
Sacred and Secular [Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart]
Social Capital, Voluntary Associations and Collective Action: Which Aspects of Social Capital Have the Greatest [Welzel, C., Inglehart, R. & Deutsch, F.]
Social position, information and postmaterialism [Díez Nicolás, J.]
Social Relations and Social Capital in Vietnam: Findings from the 2001 World Values Survey [Dalton, R. J., Pham Minh Hac, Pham Thanh Nghi and Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T]
Social Relations and Social Capital in Vietnam: The 2001 World Values Survey [Dalton, R. J., Pham Minh Hac, Pham Thanh Nghi & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T]
Strengthening Electoral Integrity: The Pragmatic Case for Assistance [Pippa Norris]
Subjective Security in Spain: Building a Syntethical Security Index (SSSI) [Juan Díez Nicolás]
Subjective well-being rankings of 82 societies (based on combined Happiness and Life Satisfaction scores) [Inglehart, R.]
TABLES: Before the Emergence of Critical Citizens: Economic Development and Political Trust in China [Wang, Zhengxu]
TABLES: The Social Transformation of Trust in Government [Dalton, R. J.]
Tendencias mundiales de cambio en los valores sociales y politicos [Diez Nicolas, J., Inglehart, R., eds.]
The Civic Culture Transformed [under edition of Russel Dalton and Christian Welzel in honor of Ronald Inglehart]
The China Puzzle: Declining Happiness in a Rising Economy [Brockmann, H., J. Delhay, H. Yuan & Welzel, C.]
The Origins of Gender Roles: Women and the Plough [Alesina, A., Giuliano, P. & Nunn, N.]
The relations between religion and politics in the contemporary Western world: The impact of secularization, postmodernization and peoples' basic value orientations [Pettersson, T.]
The Role of Ordinary People in Democratization [Welzel, C. & Inglehart, R.]
The Social Transformation of Trust in Government [Dalton, R. J.]
The theory of human development: A cross-cultural analysis [Welzel, C., Inglehart, R. & Klingemann, H-D.]
The Vietnamese Public in Transition, The World Values Survey: Vietnam 2001 [Dalton, R. J. & Ong, Nhu-Ngoc T]
The Worldviews of Islamic Publics in Global Perspective [Inglehart, R.]
The Worldviews of Islamic Publics: The Cases of Egypt, Iran, and Jordan [Moaddel, M. & Azadarmaki, Taqhi]
Theories of Democratization [Welzel, C.]
Trends in Political Action: The Developmental Trend and the Post-Honeymoon Decline [Inglehart, R. & Catterberg, G.]
Trump and the Xenophobic Populist Parties: The Silent Revolution in Reverse [Ronald Inglehart, Pippa Norris]
Two Contradictory Hypotheses on Globalization: Societal Convergence or Civilization Differentiation and Clash [Díez-Nicolás, J.]
Value Change in Latin America [Marita Carballo and Alejandro Moreno. Eds.]
Value Priorities in Israeli Society: An Examination of Inglehart's Theory of Modernization and Cultural Variation. [Yuchtman-Ya'ar, E.]
Values and Perceptions of the Islamic and Middle Eastern Publics [Mansoor Moaddell, ed.]
Voting in Old and New Democracies [by Richard Gunther (Editor), Paul A. Beck (Editor), Pedro C. Magalhães (Editor), Alejandro Moreno (Editor)]
What Insights can Multi-Country Surveys Provide about People and Societies? [Inglehart, Ronald and Welzel, Christian]
Why Are Women Politically Active? - The Household, Public Space, and Political Participation in India [Chhibber, P.]
Why Elections Fail [Pippa Norris]
Why Electoral Integrity Matters [Pippa Norris]