Cultural Barriers to Women's Leadership: A Worldwide Comparison

Inglehart, R. & Norris, P.
A fundamental problem facing the process of democratization is the continued lack of gender equality in political leadership. The basic facts are not in dispute: worldwide today women represent only one in seven parliamentarians, one in ten cabinet ministers, and, at the apex of power, one in twenty Heads of State or Government. Multiple factors have contributed towards this situation, including structural and institutional barriers. But what is the role of political culture in this process? Do attitudes towards women as political leaders function as a significant barrier to their empowerment, and in particular how important is culture in comparison to structural and institutional factors? Based on reexamining the evidence our thesis is that (a) there are substantial differences in egalitarian attitudes towards women's leadership in post-industrial, post-Communist and developing societies; (b) traditional attitudes towards gender equality are a major obstacle to the election of women to parliament; (c) culture continues to prove a significant influence on the proportion of women parliamentarians even controlling for social structural and political institutions; but that (d) there is evidence that as a result of modernization these cultural barriers have been fading among the younger generation in postindustrial societies. After setting out the theoretical framework and core argument, the analysis testing these propositions draws on evidence from the World Values Surveys in 55 societies with data from 1995-99. The conclusion considers the implications of the analysis for strategies to advance gender parity...

Cultural_Barriers_to_Womens_Leadership_A_Worldwide_Comparison.doc [Download count:182]

(Click for more...)
 
 
View by Author
View by Title
Search text:
Analyzing National Change in Citizen Secularism Across Four Time Periods in the World Values Surveys [Li, Liman Man Wai & Bond, Michael H.]
Context Matters - The Effect of National-Level Factors on the Relationship between Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Individuals on Their Life-Satisfaction [Eichhorn, J.]
Cultural Differences on Values about Conflict, War, and Peace [Díez-Nicolás, J.]
Democracy Misunderstood: Authoritarian Notions of Democracy around the Globe [Welzel, C., Kirsch, H.]
Does Individual Secularism Promote Life Satisfaction? The Moderating Role of Societal Development [Li, Liman Man Wai & Bond, Michael H.]
Dynamics of Cultural Change: The Human Development Perspective [Abdollahian, M., Coan, T., Oh, H., Yesilada, B.]
Economic Individualism and Government Spending [Arikan, G.]
Evidencing and Explaining Democratic Congruence: The Perspective of Substantive Democracy [Welzel, C., Klingemann, H.-D.]
Evolution, Empowerment and Emancipation [Welzel, C.]
Examining Environmental Concern in Developed, Transitioning and Developing Countries - A Cross-Country Test of the Objective Problems and the Subjective Values Explanations [Running, K.]
Forms of Civic Engagement and Corruption: Disentangling the Roles of Voluntary Associations, Elite challenging Mass Movements and the Type of Trust within Social Networks [Griesshaber, N.]
From Materialist to Postmaterialist Happiness? [Delhey, J.]
Generalizing Trust - How Outgroup-Trust Grows Beyond Ingroup-Trust [Delhey, J., Welzel, C.]
Islam and Patriarchy: How Robust is Muslim Support for Patriarchal Values? [Alexander, A.C. & Welzel, C.]
Mapping the Cooperative Landscape: Spatializing an Intangible Social Capital Variable [Witte, A.E., Tensaout, M.]
Measuring Effective Democracy: A Defense [Alexander, A.C., Inglehart, R. & Welzel, C.]
Measuring Effective Democracy: The Human Empowerment Approach [Welzel, C., Alexander A.C.]
Misconceptions of Measurement Equivalence: Time for a Paradigm Shift [Welzel, C.; Inglehart, R.]
Peace Through Integration or Peace Through Separation? [Reher, S.]
Pitfalls in the Study of Democratization. Testing the Emancipatory Theory of Democracy [Welzel, C.; Inglehart, R.; Kruse, S.]
Religiosity and Attitudes towards the Involvement of Religious Leaders in Politics [Mueller, T.]
Religious Regimes and Prospects for Liberal Politics: Futures of Iran, Iraq, and Saudi-Arabia [Moaddel, M.]
Testing the Revised Theory of Modernization: Measurement and Explanatory Aspects [Dülmer, H.; Inglehart, R.; Welzel, C.]
The Legitimacy Puzzle: Why So Many People Confuse the Absence of Democracy with Its Presence [Kruse, S., Ravlik, M., Welzel, C.]
Two Contradictory Hypotheses on Globalization: Societal Convergence or Civilizational Differentiation? [Diez-Nicolás, J.]
Unity, Plurality and/or Hybridity? Assessing the Global Pattern of Political Cultures [Schubert, S.]
Value Structures and Dimensions: Evidence from the German WVS [Held, M., Mueller, J., Deutsch, F., Grzechnik, E., Welzel C.]
Values, Repression, and Subversion [Zavadkaya M., Welzel C.]
World Values Survey Response and Behavior. Emancipative and Secular Values Predict Cooperation, Protection of Property and Pro-Social Behavior [Kistler, D.; Thöni, C.; Welzel, C.]