     Constructing indices for Secular and Emancipative Values

By Christian Welzel

The World Values Survey measures of secular values and emancipative values are theoretically explained and empirically tested for their cross-cultural reliability and validity in Freedom Rising, pp. 57-105. The backward estimates of emancipative values for decades before available survey data are explained in Freedom Rising, pp. 157-161. The following syntax for building secular values and emancipative values as well as their respective sub-indices is taken from the Online Appendix to Freedom Rising at www.cambridge.org/welzel (pp. 15-27). The description of the backward estimation procedure is taken from the same location (pp. 52-55). Note that the syntax below uses the variable numbers of the longitudinal datafile, that corresponds to the EVS-WVS integrated dictionary.

A. Creating SACRED-vs.-SECULAR VALUES (in short: SECULAR VALUES)

Sub-Index 1 (3 items): DEFIANCE

 Sub-index Title Pseudo-code I_AUTHORITY Overall Secular Values-1: Inverse respect for authority if E018=1 then 0  if E018=2 then 0.5  if E018=3 then 1  else -99 I_NATIONALISM Overall Secular Values-1: Inverse national pride if G006=1 then 0  if G006=2 then 0.33  if G006=3 then 0.66  if G006=4 then 1  else -99 I_DEVOUT Overall Secular Values-1: Inverse devoutness if D054=1 then 0  if D054=2 then 0.33  if D054=3 then 0.66  if D054=4 then 1  else -99 DEFIANCE Overall Secular Values-1: Defiance sub-index if (i_nationalism <> -99) and (i_authority <> -99) and (i_devout <> -99) then (i_nationalism+i_authority+i_devout)/3  if (i_nationalism = -99) and (i_authority <> -99) and (i_devout <> -99) then 0.077+0.463*i_devout+0.384*i_authority  if (i_nationalism <> -99) and (i_authority = -99) and (i_devout <> -99) then 0.103+0.385*i_nationalism+0.434*i_devout  if (i_nationalism <> -99) and (i_authority <> -99) and (i_devout = -99) then 0.202+0.372*i_nationalism+0.363*i_authority  else -99 WEIGHT1A Overall Secular Values-1: Weight1a if (i_nationalism<>-99) and (i_authority<>-99) and (i_devout<>-99) then 1  else 0.66

The above procedure creates the DEFIANCE sub-index in such a way that, whenever all three of its components are available, it is the average of these three; whereas when one component is missing it is the linear transformation of the available two components. The formula for the linear transformation (constant and component coefficients) is obtained from regressing the three component average on the two available components. Since there are three possible combinations of available two components, this procedure is performed for each of these possibilities separately. All this is done to avoid losing observations when just one of the three components is unavailable.

Weight1a is used to weigh down cases in which the defiance sub-index is based on only two instead of three components.

Sub-Index 2 (3 items): DISBELIEF

 Sub-index Title Pseudo-code I_RELIGIMP Overall Secular Values-2: Inverse import of relig if A006=1 then 0  if A006=2 then 0.33  if A006=3 then 0.66  if A006=4 then 1  else -99 I_RELIGBEL Overall Secular Values-2: Inverse relig person if F034=1 then 0  if F034=2 then 1  if F034=3 then 1  else -99 I_RELIGPRAC Overall Secular Values-2: Inverse relig practice if F028>=1 and F028<=4 then (F028-1)/6  if F028=5 then 0.5  if F028>=6 then (F028-2)/6  else -99 DISBELIEF Overall Secular Values-2: Disbelief sub-index if (i_religimp <> -99) and (i_religbel <> -99) and (i_religprac <> -99) then (i_religimp+i_religbel+i_religprac)/3  if (i_religimp = -99) and (i_religbel <> -99) and (i_religprac <> -99) then 0.088+0.423*i_religbel+0.468*i_religprac  if (i_religimp <> -99) and (i_religbel = -99) and (i_religprac <> -99) then 0.078+0.501*i_religimp+0.435*i_religprac  if (i_religimp <> -99) and (i_religbel <> -99) and (i_religprac = -99) then 0.023+0.481*i_religimp+0.393*i_religbel  else -99 WEIGHT2a Overall Secular Values-2: Weight2a if (i_religimp <> -99) and (i_religbel <> -99) and (i_religprac <> -99) then 1  else 0.66

The above procedure creates the disbelief sub-index in such a way that, whenever all three of its components are available, it is the average of these three; whereas when one component is missing it is the linear transformation of the available two components. The formula for the linear transformation (constant and component coefficients) is obtained from regressing the three component average on the two available components. Since there are three possible combinations of available two components, this procedure is performed for each of these possibilities separately. All this is done to avoid losing observations when just one of the three components is unavailable.

Weight2a is used to weigh down cases in which the disbelief sub-index is based on only two instead of three components.

Sub-Index 3 (3 items): RELATIVISM

 Sub-index Title Pseudo-code I_NORM1 Overall Secular Values-3: Inverse norm conform1 if (F115=1) then 0  if (F115 > 1) then 1  else -99 I_NORM2 Overall Secular Values-3: Inverse norm conform2 if (F116=1) then 0  if (F116>1) then 1  else -99 I_NORM3 Overall Secular Values-3: Inverse norm conform3 if (F117=1) then 0  if (F117>1) then 1  else -99 RELATIVISM Overall Secular Values-3: Relativism if (i_norm1<>-99) and (i_norm2<>-99) and (i_norm3<>-99) then (i_norm1+i_norm2+i_norm3)/3  if (i_norm1 = -99) and (i_norm2<>-99) and (i_norm3<>-99) then 0.078+0.450*i_norm2+0.424*i_norm3  if (i_norm1<>-99) and (i_norm2 = -99) and (i_norm3<>-99) then 0.050+0.441*i_norm1+0.465*i_norm3  if (i_norm1<>-99) and (i_norm2<>-99) and (i_norm3 = -99) then 0.071+0.419*i_norm1+0.469*i_norm2  else -99 WEIGHT3A Overall Secular Values-3: Weight if (i_norm1<>-99) and (i_norm2<>-99) and (i_norm3<>-99) then 1  else 0.66

The above procedure creates the relativism sub-index in such a way that, whenever all three of its components are available, it is the average of these three; whereas when one component is missing it is the linear transformation of the available two components. The formlula for the linear transformation (constant and component coefficients) is obtained from regressing the three component average on the two available components. Since there are three possible combinations of available two components, this procedure is performed for each of these possibilities separately. All this is done to avoid losing observations when just one of the three components is unavailable.

Weight3a is used to weigh down cases in which the relativism sub-index is based on only two instead of three components.

Sub-Index 4 (3 items): SCEPTICISM

 Sub-index Title Pseudo-code I_TRUSTARMY Overall Secular Values-4: Inverse trust in army if E069_02=1 then 0  if E069_02=2 then 0.33  if E069_02=3 then 0.66  if E069_02=4 then 1  else -99 I_TRUSTPOLICE Overall Secular Values-4: Inverse trust in police if E069_06=1 then 0  if E069_06=2 then 0.33  if E069_06=3 then 0.66  if E069_06=4 then 1  else -99 I_TRUSTCOURTS Overall Secular Values-4: Inverse trust in courts if E069_17=1 then 0  if E069_17=2 then 0.33  if E069_17=3 then 0.66  if E069_17=4 then 1  else -99 SCEPTICISM Overall Secular Values-4: Scepticism index if (i_trustarmy<>-99) and (i_trustpolice<>-99) and (i_trustcourts<>-99)  then (i_trustarmy+i_trustpolice+i_trustcourts)/3  if (i_trustarmy = -99) and (i_trustpolice<>-99) and (i_trustcourts<>-99) then 0.099+0.427*i_trustpolice+0.408*i_trustcourts  if (i_trustarmy<>-99) and (i_trustpolice = -99) and (i_trustcourts<>-99) then 0.059+0.411*i_trustarmy+0.475*i_trustcourts  if (i_trustarmy<>-99) and (i_trustpolice<>-99) and (i_trustcourts = -99) then 0.060+0.395*i_trustarmy+0.473*i_trustpolice  else -99 WEIGHT4A Overall Secular Values-4: Weight 4a if (i_trustarmy<>-99) and (i_trustpolice<>-99) and (i_trustcourts<>-99) then 1  else 0.66

The above procedure creates the scepticism sub-index in such a way that, whenever all three of its components are available, it is the average of these three; whereas when one component is missing it is the linear transformation of the available two components. The formula for the linear transformation (constant and component coefficients) is obtained from regressing the three component average on the two available components. Since there are three possible combinations of available two components, this procedure is performed for each of these possibilities separately. All this is done to avoid losing observations when just one of the three components is unavailable.

Weight4a is used to weigh down cases in which the scepticism sub-index is based on only two instead of three components.

Overall SECULAR VALUES index

The following procedure creates the overall index of secular values SACSECVAL in such a way that, whenever all four of its components are available, it is the average of these four; whereas when one component is missing it is the average of the remaining three components. No linear transformation is applied because the averages of the four components are quite similar.

SECVALWGT is an average weight of the specific weights for the four sub-indices. This weight should be used when analyzing the index of secular values. The average weight down-weighs cases proportional to the number items missing, related to the total of all 12 items on which the overall index of secular values is based.

 INDEX Title Pseudo-code SACSECVAL Overall Secular Values if (scepticism<>-99) and (relativism<>-99) and (disbelief<>-99) and (defiance<>-99) then (scepticism+relativism+disbelief+defiance)/4  if (scepticism = -99) and (relativism<>-99) and (disbelief<>-99) and (defiance<>-99) then (relativism+disbelief+defiance)/3  if (scepticism<>-99) and (relativism = -99) and (disbelief<>-99) and (defiance<>-99) then (scepticism+disbelief+defiance)/3  if (scepticism<>-99) and (relativism<>-99) and (disbelief = -99) and (defiance<>-99) then (scepticism+relativism+defiance)/3  if (scepticism<>-99) and (relativism<>-99) and (disbelief<>-99) and (defiance = -99) then (scepticism+relativism+disbelief)/3  else -99 SECVALWGT Weight for overal secular values (weight1a+weight2a+weight3a+weight4a)/4

B. OBEDIENT-vs.-EMANCIPATIVE VALUES (in short: EMANCIPATIVE VALUES)

Sub-Index 1 (3 items): AUTONOMY

 Sub-index Title Pseudo-code I_INDEP Emancipative Values-1: Independence as kid quality if A029=1 then 1  if A029=0 then 0  else -99 I_IMAGIN Emancipative Values-1: Imagination as kid quality if A034=1 then 1  if A034=0 then 0  else -99 I_NONOBED Emancipative Values-1: Obedience not kid quality if A042=1 then 0  if A042=0 then 1  else -99 AUTONOMY Emancipative Values-1: Autonomy subindex if I_INDEP>-99 and I_IMAGIN>-99 and I_NONOBED>-99 THEN (I_INDEP+I_IMAGIN+I_NONOBED)/3  if I_INDEP>-99 and I_IMAGIN>-99 and I_NONOBED=-99 THEN 0.175+0.397*I_INDEP+0.366*I_IMAGIN  if I_INDEP>-99 and I_IMAGIN=-99 and I_NONOBED>-99 THEN 0.037+0.364*I_INDEP+0.356*I_NONOBED  if I_INDEP=-99 and I_IMAGIN>-99 and I_NONOBED>-99 THEN 0.102+0.379*I_IMAGIN+0.400*I_NONOBED  else -99 WEIGHT1B Emancipative Values-1: Weight1b if I_INDEP>-99 AND I_IMAGIN>-99 and I_NONOBED>-99 THEN 1  else  0.66

The above procedure creates the autonomy sub-index index in such a way that whenever all three of its components are available, it is the average of these three, whereas when one component is missing it is a linear transformation of the available two components. The formula for the linear transformation (constant and component coefficients) is obtained from regressing the three component average on the two specific components in question. Since there are three possibilities of which combination of two components is available, this procedure has to be performed separately for each combination. All this is done to avoid losing observations when just one of the three components is missing.

Weight1b is used to weigh down cases in which the autonomy sub-index is based on only two instead of three components.

Sub-Index 2 (3 items): EQUALITY

 Sub-index Title Pseudo-code I_WOMJOB Emancipative Values-2: Gender equality: job if C001=1 then 0  if C001=3 then 0.5  if C001=2 then 1  else -99 I_WOMPOL Emancipative Values-2: Gender equality: politics if D059=1 then 0  if D059=2 then 0.33  if D059=3 then 0.66  if D059=4 then 1  else -99 I_WOMEDU Emancipative Values-2: Gender equality: education if D060=1 then  0  if D060=2 then  0.33  if D060=3 then  0.66  if D060=4 then  1  else -99 EQUALITY Emancipative Values-2: Equality sub-index if I_WOMPOL>-99 and I_WOMEDU>-99 and I_WOMJOB>-99 THEN (I_WOMPOL+I_WOMEDU+I_WOMJOB)/3  if I_WOMPOL=-99 and I_WOMEDU>-99 and I_WOMJOB>-99 THEN 0.049+0.447*I_WOMEDU+0.404*I_WOMJOB  if I_WOMPOL>-99 and I_WOMEDU=-99 and I_WOMJOB>-99 THEN 0.145+0.443*I_WOMPOL+0.372*I_WOMJOB  if I_WOMPOL>-99 and I_WOMEDU>-99 and I_WOMJOB=-99 THEN 0.042+0.485*I_WOMPOL+0.421*I_WOMEDU  else -99 WEIGHT2B Emancipative Values-2: Weight2b if I_WOMPOL>-99 and I_WOMJOB>-99 and I_WOMEDU>-99 then 1  else 0.66

The above procedure creates the equality sub-index index in such a way that whenever all three of its components are available, it is the average of these three, whereas when one component is missing it is a linear transformation of the available two components. The formula for the linear transformation (constant and component coefficients) is obtained from regressing the three component average on the two available components. Since there are three possibilities of which combination of two components is available, this procedure has to be performed separately for each combination. All this is done to avoid losing observations when just one of the three components is missing.

Weight2b is used to weigh down cases in which one of the three components is missing, giving these cases three third of the unit weight of 1.

Sub-Index 3 (3 items): CHOICE

 Sub-index Title Pseudo-code I_HOMOLIB Emancipative Values-3: Homosexuality acceptance if F118<0 then -99  else (F118-1)/9 I_ABORTLIB Emancipative Values-3: Abortion acceptable if F120<1 then -99  else (F120-1)/9 I_DIVORLIB Emancipative Values-3: Divorce acceptable if F121<1 then -99   else (F121-1)/9 CHOICE Emancipative Values-3: Choice sub-index if I_HOMOLIB>-99 AND I_ABORTLIB>-99 AND I_DIVORLIB>-99 THEN (I_HOMOLIB+I_ABORTLIB+I_DIVORLIB)/3  if I_HOMOLIB=-99 AND I_ABORTLIB>-99 AND I_DIVORLIB>-99 THEN 0.008+0.434*I_ABORTLIB+0.439*I_DIVORLIB  if I_HOMOLIB>-99 AND I_ABORTLIB=-99 AND I_DIVORLIB>-99 THEN 0.015+0.408*I_HOMOLIB+0.496*I_DIVORLIB  if I_HOMOLIB>-99 AND I_ABORTLIB>-99 AND I_DIVORLIB=-99 THEN 0.069+0.416*I_HOMOLIB+0.505*I_ABORTLIB  else -99 WEIGHT3B Emancipative Values-3: Weight3b if I_ABORTLIB>-99 AND I_DIVORLIB>-99 AND I_HOMOLIB>-99 then 1  else 0.66

The above procedure creates the choice sub-index index in such a way that whenever all three of its components are available, it is the average of these three, whereas when one component is missing it is a linear transformation of the available two components. The formula for the linear transformation (constant and component coefficients) is obtained from regressing the three component average on the two available components. Since there are three possibilities of which combination of two components is available, this procedure has to be performed separately for each combination. All this is done to avoid losing observations when just one of the three components is missing.

Weight3b is used to weigh down cases in which one of the three components is missing, giving these cases three third of the unit weight of 1.

Sub-Index 4 (3 items): VOICE

 Sub-index Title Pseudo-code I_VOICE1 Emancipative Values-4: Voice 1 if ((E003=2 and E004=4) or (E003=4 and E004=2)) THEN 1  if ((E003=2 and E004<>4) or (E003=4 and E004<>2)) THEN 0.66   f ((E003<>2 and E004=4) or (E003<>4 and E004=2)) THEN 0.33  if ((E003>-1) and (E003>-1) and (E004>-1) and (E004>-1)) THEN 0  else -99 I_VOICE2 Emancipative Values-4: Voice2 if E001=3 then 1  if E002=3 then 0.5  if (E001>-1) and (E002>-1) then 0  else -99 I_VOI2_00 Emancipative Values-4: Voi2_00 (auxiliary) if I_VOICE1>-99 and I_VOICE2>-99 then (I_VOICE1+I_VOICE2)/2  else -99 VOICE Emancipative Values-4: Voice sub-index if I_VOI2_00>-99 then I_VOI2_00  if I_VOICE1>-99 THEN 0.656*I_VOICE1+0.136  if I_VOICE2>-99 THEN 0.613*I_VOICE2+0.141  else -99 WEIGHT4B Emancipative Values-4: Weight 4b IF I_VOI2_00>-99 then 1  else 0.66

I_VOI2_00 is an auxiliary version of voice indices for the situation that both voice1 and voice2 or only one of them are available.

The above procedure creates the final index of VOICE in such a way that whenever voice1 and voice2 are available, the index is the average of the two. However, when (as in wave 1), the voice2 index is not available, the final voice index is a linear transformation of the voice1 index only. The formula for the linear transformation is obtained by regressing the combined voice1 and voice2 index on the voice1 index.

Weight4b is used to weigh down cases in which one of the three components is missing, giving these cases three third of the unit weight of 1.

Overall EMANCIPATIVE VALUES INDEX

The following procedure creates the overall index of emancipative values in such a way that whenever all four of its components are available, it is the average of these four, whereas when one component is missing it is a linear transformation of the available three components. The formula for the linear transformation (constant and component coefficients) is obtained from regressing the four component average on the three available components. Since there are four possibilities of which combination of three components is available, this procedure has to be performend for each of these possibilities separately. All this is done to avoid losing observations when just one of the four components is missing.

 INDEX Title Pseudo-code RESEMAVAL Emancipative values IF (AUTONOMY<>-99) AND (EQUALITY<>-99) AND (CHOICE<>-99) AND (VOICE<>-99) THEN (AUTONOMY+EQUALITY+CHOICE+VOICE)/4  IF (AUTONOMY<>-99) AND (EQUALITY = -99) AND (CHOICE<>-99) AND (VOICE<>-99) THEN  0.103+0.266*AUTONOMY+0.305*CHOICE+0.286*VOICE  IF (AUTONOMY = -99) AND (EQUALITY<>-99) AND (CHOICE<>-99) AND (VOICE<>-99) THEN 0.070+0.274*EQUALITY+0.304*CHOICE+0.271*VOICE  IF (AUTONOMY<>-99) AND (EQUALITY<>-99) AND (CHOICE = -99) AND (VOICE<>-99) THEN  0.016+0.291*AUTONOMY+0.310*EQUALITY+0.288*VOICE  IF (AUTONOMY<>-99) AND (EQUALITY<>-99) AND (CHOICE<>-99) AND (VOICE = -99)  THEN 0.051+0.267*AUTONOMY+0.292*EQUALITY+0.290*CHOICE  ELSE -99 WEIGHTB Weight for Emancipative values (WEIGHT1B+WEIGHT2B+WEIGHT3B+WEIGHT4B)/4

WeightB is an average weight of the specific weights for the four sub-indices. This weight should be used when analyzing the index of emancipative values. The average weight down-weighs cases proportional to the number items missing, related to the total of all 12 items on which the overall index of emancipative values is based.

               Welzel,, C. (2013). Freedom Rising: Human Empowerment and the Quest for Emancipation. New York: Cambridge University Press. Copyright @2020 World Values Survey Association